Builtins
ID  Name  Description  Module  Step  Explanation  Example 

1  print 
1  2  Prints the value to the screen. 


2  + 
addition 
1  3  Adds two numbers. 

3   
subtraction 
1  3  Subtracts the first number by the second. 

4  * 
multiplication 
1  3  Multiplies two numbers. 

5  / 
division 
1  3  Divides the first number by the second. 

6  + 
unary plus 
1  3  Used on one value, does not change the number. 

7   
negation 
1  3  Used on one value, negates the number. 

8  // 
quotient 
1  3  Calculates the quotient when the first number is divided by the second. 

9  % 
remainder 
1  3  Calculates the remainder when the first number is divided by the second. 

10  ** 
exponentiation 
1  3  Raises the first number to the power of the second number. 

11  import 
import 
2  3  Used to import a module. 

12  math 
math module 
2  3  The math module. Contains functions and constants relating to math. 
After the math module is imported, 
13  sqrt 
square root 
2  3  Determines the square root of the input. In the math module. 
After the math module is imported, 
14  pi 
pi 
2  3  The constant (\pi). In the math module. 
After the math module is imported, the constant can be accessed as 
15  dir 
directory 
2  3  Used with the input 
Using 
16  from math import 
import a single function or constant 
2  3  Used to import a single function or constant from a module. 
After using 
17  pow 
exponentiation 
2  3  Uses the first input as the base and the second as the exponent. There are two versions. The version in the math module always returns a floating point number. 

18  abs 
absolute value 
2  3  Produces the absolute value of the input. 

19  __doc__ 
documentation 
2  3  Prints the docstring. Uses dot notation. 
The docstring for 
20  input 
user input 
2  4  Prompts the user to type a value. The optional string is the prompt. 
The function call 
21  type 
determine type 
2  4  Produces the type of the input. 
The value of 
22  int 
make into integer 
2  4  Makes an integer, floating point number, or string (if an integer in quotation marks) into an integer. 
The values of 
23  float 
make into floating point 
2  4  Makes an integer, floating point number, or string (if a number in quotation marks) into a floating point number. 
The values of 
24  str 
make into string 
2  4  Makes a number or a string into a string. 
The values of 
25  len 
length 
2  7  Produces the length of a string. 
The values of 
26  [i] 
index 
2  7  Produces the character in position 
The value of 
27  + 
concatenation 
2  7  Produces the string formed by gluing together the input strings. 
The value of 
28  * 
repeated concatenation 
2  7  Produces the string formed by repeatedly gluing the input with copies of the input. 
The value of 
29  [a:b] 
slice 
2  7  Produces a substring from positions 
The value of 
30  upper 
upper case 
2  8  Produces a string with all lowercase letters replaced by uppercase letters. Uses dot notation. 
The value of 
31  lower 
lower case 
2  8  Produces a string with all uppercase letters replaced by lowercase letters. Uses dot notation. 
The value of 
32  ceil 
ceiling 
2  8  Produces the integer reached by pushing up to the ceiling. In the math module. 
The values of 
33  floor 
floor 
2  8  Produces the integer reached by pushing down to the floor. In the math module. 
The values of 
34  trunc 
truncation 
2  8  Produces the integer formed by cutting off all digits after the decimal point. In the math module. 
The values of 
35  True 
true 
5  3  The Boolean constant True. 
If the value of a Boolean is not 
36  False 
false 
5  3  The Boolean contant False. 
If the value of a Boolean is not 
37  or 
or 
5  3  Produces 
The value of 
38  and 
and 
5  3  Produces 
The value of 
39  not 
not 
5  3  Produces 
The value of 
40  < 
less than 
5  3  Produces 
The value of 
41  > 
greater than 
5  3  Produces 
The value of 
42  <= 
less than or equal to 
5  3  Produces 
The value of 
43  >= 
greater than or equal to 
5  3  Produces 
The value of 
44  == 
equals 
5  3  Produces 
The value of 
45  != 
not equals 
5  3  Produces 
The value of 
46  is 
is 
5  3  Produces 
For a variable 
47  is not 
is not 
5  3  Produces 
The value of 
48  ord 
code point from character 
5  3  Produces the code point corresponding to the input character. 
The value of 
49  chr 
character from code point 
5  3  Produces the character corresponding to the input code point. 
The value of 
50  isalpha 
letter check 
5  3  Produces 
The value of 
51  islower 
lower case check 
5  3  Produces 
The value of 
52  isupper 
upper case check 
5  3  Produces 
The value of 
53  isdigit 
digit check 
5  3  Produces 
The value of 
54  isspace 
space check 
5  3  Produces 
The value of 
55  assert 
assertion 
7  7  Results in an assertion error if the Boolean expression after 
Running a program containing the line 
56  len 
list length 
9  2  Produces the length of a list. 
The value of 
57  [i] 
index 
9  2  Produces the item in position 
The value of 
58  + 
concatenation 
9  2  Produces the list formed by gluing together the input lists. 
The value of 
59  * 
repeated concatenation 
9  2  Produces the list formed by repeatedly gluing the input with copies of the input. 
The value of 
60  [a:b] 
slice 
9  2  Produces a list from positions 
The value of 
61  min 
minimum 
9  3  Produces the minimum item in the list. The input list does not change. 
The value of 
62  max 
maximum 
9  3  Produces the maximum item in the list. The input list does not change. 
The value of 
63  count 
count 
9  3  Produces the number of times the input item appears in the input list. Uses dot notation. The input list does not change. 
The value of 
64  index 
search 
9  3  Produces the smallest index of a position containing the input item in the input list. Uses dot notation. The input list does not change. 
The value of 
65  in 
membership 
9  3  Produces 
The value of 
66  list 
new list 
9  3  Produces a new list containing the items of the input as items. The input list does not change. 
The value of 
67  sorted 
sorted 
9  3  Produces a new list with the input items in sorted order. The input list does not change. 
The value of 
68  append 
append 
9  3  Mutates the input list by appending the input item to the end of the list. 
For a variable 
69  remove 
remove 
9  3  Mutates the input list by removing the first occurrence of the input item from the list. 
For a variable 
70  insert 
insert 
9  3  Mutates the input list by inserting at the input index the input item. 
For a variable 
71  sort 
sort 
9  3  Mutates the input list by sorting the items. 
For a variable 
72  range 
range 
10  2  Produces an immutable sequence of integers starting at 
The value of 
73  split 
split 
10  8  Produces a list of strings from an input string. Uses dot notation. 
The value of 
74  class 
class definition 
11  2  Creates a new class. 
To create a class 
75  isinstance 
instance check 
11  2  Produces 
The value of 
76  hasattr 
attribute check 
11  2  Produces 
The value of 
77  dir 
directory 
11  2  Used with an class name as input to show contents of a class. 
Using 
78  copy 
copy module 
11  3  Contains functions related to copying. 
To load the copy module, use 
79  copy 
copy function 
11  3  Makes a shallow copy. In the copy module. 
To create a copy of an object 
80  deepcopy 
deep copy function 
11  3  Makes a deep copy. In the copy module. 
To create a copy of an object 
81  len 
tuple length 
12  3  Produces the length of a tuple. 
The value of 
82  [i] 
index 
12  3  Produces the item in position 
The value of 
83  + 
concatenation 
12  3  Produces the tuple formed by gluing together the input tuples. 
The value of 
84  * 
repeated concatenation 
12  3  Produces the tuple formed by repeatedly gluing the input with copies of the input. 
The value of 
85  [a:b] 
slice 
12  3  Produces a tuple from positions 
The value of 
86  tuple 
tuple 
12  3  Produces a tuple from the items in the input. 
The value of 
87  min 
minimum 
12  3  Produces the minimum item in the tuple. 
The value of 
88  max 
maximum 
12  3  Produces the maximum item in the tuple. 
The value of 
89  count 
count 
12  3  Produces the number of times the input item appears in the input tuple. Uses dot notation. 
The value of 
90  index 
search 
12  3  Produces the smallest index of a position containing the input item in the input tuple. Uses dot notation. 
The value of 
91  in 
membership 
12  3  Produces 
The value of 
92  list 
new list 
12  3  Produces a new list containing the items of the input tupleas items. 
The value of 
93  sorted 
sorted 
12  3  Produces a new list with the tuple input items in sorted order. 
The value of 
94  [i] 
access dictionary item 
12  4  Produces the value associated with key 
For a variable 
95  keys 
keys 
12  4  Produces a list of keys in the dictionary. Uses dot notation. 
For a variable 
96  items 
key, item pairs 
12  4  Produces a list of key, item pairs. Uses dot notation. 
For a variable 
97  in 
in 
12  4  Produces 
For a variable 
98  not in 
not in 
12  4  Produces 
For a variable 
99  zip 
zip 
12  4  Produces pairs of values from two input sequences. 
Using 